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Production of titanium ingots


To turn titanium sponge into ingots, it is remelted Two methods of remelting titanium sponge are used in industry: electric arc and induction melting.
The induction melting is carried out either under protective atmosphere of argon or helium, or in vacuum, as titanium actively interacts with atmospheric gases above the temperature of 1040 °C. Induction melting makes it possible to obtain very homogeneous and reproducible ingots. The main disadvantage of induction melting is that titanium absorbs up to 1% of carbon from the graphite furnace lining. The induction method is used when high ductility and toughness are not required of the metal. Electric arc smelting is performed with graphite electrodes and the carbon contamination of the metal is reduced to 0.2%.

Post-melting production

After remelting, flat, square or round ingots of various parameters are produced, up to the smallest cross section, which has led to a change in the ratio of semi-finished products made directly from titanium ingots and their intermediate billets. It should also be noted that the task is not limited to obtaining the initial measured billet for the final shaping. New methods make it possible to obtain the necessary alloy structure.

Hot workpieces

The production of intermediate billets for titanium ingots is still based on the hot deformation method. Analysis shows that only 12-15% of deformed semi-finished products from titanium and titanium alloys are obtained directly from ingots by pressing, forging and rolling. Such products are massive profiles, large bars and plates, as well as heavy forgings.

Production of special operations

In the production of small bars and wires, thin plates and sheets, pressed and rolled pipes and profiles, as well as small forgings do not require the use of special operations, which are aimed at the formation of a regulated structure,. In the production of large diameter bars, thick plates, thick-walled profiles and pipes, medium and large forgings designed for the production of heavily loaded parts, special operations are required. Otherwise the desired structure and mechanical properties either cannot be achieved during subsequent deformation or additional time-consuming operations are required.

Processing principles

An important principle for hot working of titanium alloys is the choice of heating and deformation modes. The production of titanium ingots must meet the technological ductility requirements necessary for deformation. Thermal conductivity data are important for establishing the minimum heating time of the billets, before deformation and heat treatment. This time at t° 1000 °C is approximately 40 seconds per millimeter of thickness, and 60 seconds at lower temperatures. With this data, the titanium ingot industry determines the minimum cooling times for billets with different cross sections.


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