Samarium is an element of the 3rd group of periodic system, where it is designated as Sm. It was separated from samarskite mineral. It relates to a group of lanthanides. Atomic number is 150,36. Content of samarium in earth crust is 8 g/t and in seawater is about 1,710-6 mg/l. An annual output of samarium is a few hundredths of tones. It is separated from monazite sand with a help of ion-exchange and metallic-ceramic or electrolytic methods.
Physical and chemical properties
By its mechanical properties, samarium is similar to zinc but looks like a lead. It is slowly oxidized in air by forming dark oxide film Sm2 O3 until it turns into grey-yellow powder. It is quite active metal that has a positive valency +3. It dissolves in acids and inflames in air. It forms a nitride with nitrogen, a hydride with hydrogen, carbide with carbon, silicide with silicon, borides with borium.
Physical properties of Sm
|Atomic (molal) weight mole/h||150.36|
|Heat conductivity K [V/m*K]||13.3|
|Melting heat kJ/mole||8.9|
It is used in strain-sensitive and thermo-electric materials. There are manufactured powerful permanent magnets out of samarium in alloy with cobalt and other elements. The super-high level of coercive force and residual induction can be reached in alloy with Co, Zr, Hf, Fe, Cu. GOST 25 278 8−82 specifies a quantity of samarium in binary alloys by complex-metrical method. For example, 35−40% of Sm-Co. Samarium conduces to controlling of atomic decay. Unlike other elements (cadmium, borium) that have a wide capture section, it does not burn up and forms isotopes with high neutron capture cross-section. It is utilized as a phosphor accelerator in color display and constructions of cell-phones. It is applied in liquid and hard lasers and electrodes of automatic thermoelectric switches.
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