Eastern metallurgists began smelting tin more than 60 centuries ago, but for quite a long time, however, this metal was considered rare and was only used by jewelers. Tin products are rarely found in ancient excavations. Tin can be found mentioned in the Bible, in the Book of Moses IV. Together with copper this metal is part of bronze which has been a companion of man since the 3rd millennium B.C. and was one of the strongest alloys in ancient times. Tin remained so called "strategic metal" during the whole "Bronze Age", i.e. for more than two millennia. It is believed that the Latin name "stannim" is derived from Sanskrit and means "strong, persistent. At first, it was an alloy of lead and silver. It was only much later that they began to call it that, for example, another alloy with up to 67 percent tin. Pure tin could only be smelted in the 4th century.
In the periodic table it is element number 50, marked with the chemical sign Sn, its atomic weight is 118.7, the specific weight is 7.31 g/cm3. It begins to melt at t° 231.9° C; it boils at t° 2620° C. Perfectly conductive. Its electrical resistance at 20 ° C = 0.115 0-mm2/m. The word tin itself is Slavic, it has roots in the Baltic languages (cf. Lithuanian Alvas, alavas - "tin", Prussian alwis - translated as "lead").
Physical properties of Sn
|Atomic (molar) mass g/mol||118,71|
|Melting point t°С||231,9°С|
|Oxidation degree||4, 2|
|Thermal conductivity K [W/(m-K)||16,3|
|Molar volume cm3/mol||66,8|
It is a fairly common easily fusible corrosion-resistant metal. biologically inert, very ductile. It can be processed in every way known today. It can be easily cut, stamped, drilled, soldered, rolled and bent. After recycling can be reused. The technology of its manufacture is very simple and relatively inexpensive. It has excellent performance characteristics that make it in demand in modern manufacturing. Its price ranges about $18/kg, purified tin dioxide costs about $25/kg, monocrystalline tin with high purity - $210/kg.
Tin cannot be classified as a strong material designed to withstand heavy loads.
Tin by its characteristics is indispensable as a safe for the body, resistant to corrosion coating. It is the most "environmentally friendly" among other heavy non-ferrous metals. It is used to make tinplate, tinned iron, and food containers. Tin is indispensable for making solders and in domestic piping. It is used to make bearing babbitts. The most famous tin alloy is bronze. Another popular alloy is pewter - it serves the process of making cookware. Sn is used in superconducting wires made from its alloy with niobium, is a major alloying element for structural titanium alloys. It is worth noting that the Sn-Zr alloy is very heat-resistant (melting t° 2000°C) and very resistant to oxidation in the open air during heating.
In chemical current sources, Sn is used as an anode in the form of manganese-tin elements or in the form of mercury-tin oxide elements. It is advantageous for a lead-tin battery. This is due to the fact that at equal voltage, the capacity of this battery will be 2.5 times greater than that of the lead battery (5 times greater energy capacity per unit volume), while its internal resistance is much lower.
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