Cerium metal (ingot)
Cerium is a soft silvery-white element of the 3rd group of periodic system, where it is designated as Ce. This is a rare-earth element that relates to lanthanides. Atomic number is 58 and atomic weight is 140,115. It was invented by German scientist Martin Klaproth and Swedish chemists Hisinger and Berzelius. This element was named in honor of the biggest asteroid — Ceres. Content of cerium in earth crust is about 70 g/t and in seawater is about 5,210-6 mg/l. It is obtained by industrial method of liquid-alloy electrolysis of CeF3 fluoride.
Chemical and physical properties
Melting point of Ce is 799 °C, and boiling temperature is 3426 °C. Specific weight is 6.77 g/cm3 at a temperature of 20 °C. There are two modifications of cerium: with β-hexagonal lattice and g-cubical lattice. Transition temperature is 393 °C. Even at a room temperature, this metal is non-resistant in air — it slowly starts oxidizing and turning into white oxide. Cerium is easily dissolved in mineral acids.
Physical properties of Ce
|Atomic (molal) weight mole/h||140.115|
|Heat conductivity K [V/m*K]||11.1|
|Melting heat kJ/mole||5.2|
It is used in manufacture of thermo-electric and abrasive materials, glass, dental crowns. Dioxide CеО2 is much-requested in the capacity of catalyzer. Metallurgists dope ferrum-magnetic alloys with cerium. It increases electric conductivity of aluminium, strength of copper, titanium, structural steels. After its adding in the quantity of 1%, breaking strength and creep limit of material are increased. It is worth noting that cerium cost is much lower than lanthanum. At that, they possess the same properties and that is why cerium is applied more widely. If try to smelt cerium with zinc, there occurs an exposition. If add cerium to steel in small quantity, it purifies from detrimental sulfur additives and gasses. GOST 12 364−84 specifies alloyed steels. Along with other rare-earth elements, cerium alloys are manufactured in the forms of wire, rod, sheet, foil.
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