Sheet, strip and foil made of zirconium
Zirconium is malleable and at the same time hard metal. By plasticity rate, zirconium is identical to gold. It can be rolled into the thinnest foil with a thickness of a few microns. Zirconium sheet and strip have a number of extraordinary properties that allows using these types of mill-products as essential part of modern technologies: in mechanical engineering, chemical industry, electrical engineering, nuclear energetics, mechanical engineering.
Physical properties of Zr
|Atomic (molal) weight mole/h||91.224|
|Oxidation rate||4, 3, 2, 1, 0|
|Melting heat kJ/mole||19.2|
|Heat conductivity K [V/m*K]||22.7|
|Evaporation heat kJ/mole||567|
Zirconium sheets and strips are made by hot and cold rolling. According to GOST, surface of finished products can have small defects: scratch marks, colour changing, compression marks which do not violate standard tolerance sizes. Colour changing is also specified by standard and directly depends on terms and conditions of material storage.
Sheet sizes can vary in wide range by thickness (from 5 mm), by width (500−800 mm), and by length (about 500−2000 mm). In case if sizes are larger, there is allowed length divergence up to 20 mm. Zirconium sheets can be of specified, random, and multiple to 100 length. Quality of zirconium mill-products directly depends on alloying components. Antimony, bismuth, sulfur, zinc, plumb decreases a strength. Sulfur forms sulfide film on a surface. In comparison to zirconium, this film possesses low melting point by making sheet brittle at hammer-hardening. The main method of decontamination is electrolytic refining. In this case, sheet is immersed into electrolytic conductor. Another zirconium sheet is used in the capacity of cathode on which surface settles down a metal in a pure state. This process is self-financing because there is evolved an anodic slime during a process of electrolytic refining. It is easily dissolved in an ample quantity of chemical precious elements.
Zirconium strip is used in electrical and instrumental engineering for manufacture of anodes, cathodes and electric heaters and elements with high stable level of resistance. Such elements are often manufactured out of zirconium strip with a thickness of 5−20 µm). Zirconium sheets are widely used in nuclear energetics, chemical industry, mechanical engineering. Zirconium sheets are cold-rolled with niobium additive (up to 2,5%) are annealed in vacuum after rolling and their surface is etched. Zirconium sheets defer a radiation, possess tight capture cross-section of thermal-neutrons and resistance to aggressive environments. Such sheets are used for nuclear boiler casing and chemical reactor pressure vessel.
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