The thirteenth element in
It is a paramagnetic metal with a white-silver color, very light. Density = 2.7 g/cm³. At t° 658 - 660 °C (depending on purity) aluminum melts, and boils at 2500 °C. The specific heat of melting is 390 kJ/kg. The specific heat of vaporization = 10.53 MJ/kg. Brinnel hardness is in the range of 24-32 kgf/mm². Tensile strength is 10-12 kg/mm², and in the alloy it will be 38-42 kg/mm². High ductility is 50% for pure aluminum and 35% for technical aluminum. It has a high thermal conductivity of 203.5 W/(m-K) and an electrical conductivity of 0.037 Ohm - mm2/m, which is about 66% of that of copper. 0.0179 Ohm - mm2/m. It is a small paramagnetic with a linear expansion of 24.58-10-6/°C(t° 20 to 200°C). It is capable of forming alloys with almost all known metals, most commonly with silicon, magnesium, and copper.
Under normal conditions, aluminum forms a thin tough oxide film on the surface, which allows it not to interact with oxidants such as H2 O, O2, HNO3. This and its low specific gravity are the main reasons for the wide use of aluminum as a construction material.
Aluminum. Physical properties
|Atomic (molar) mass g/mol||26,98|
|Melting point t°С||660,3°С|
|Thermal conductivity K [W/(m-K)||237|
|Molar volume cm3/mol||10|
Aluminum is three times lighter than steel. It is corrosion resistant, can be perfectly stamped, cut, drilled, has high thermal conductivity and is not toxic. It is used in food industry for making foil, kitchenware, various packages. However, nowadays it is being replaced by such material as carbon fiber. Almost the only disadvantage of aluminum is its low strength. To increase its strength, it is alloyed with magnesium and copper.
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