Gadolinium is an element of the third group of periodic system with an atomic number 64 and molar weight of 157.25.It relates to a group of lanthanides. It has got its name in honor of chemist from Finland — Gadolin. It was invented in 1880 by Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac. He proved a presence of new element in rare-earth metal oxide mixture. Gadolinium is contained in ocean water in a quantity of 2,410— 6 mg/l and in earth crust in a quantity of 8 g/t (Taylor's value). It is obtained by a method of fluoride recovering (GdF3) or chloride-calcium recovering (GdCl3). There are obtained gadolinium joints at fractioning of rare-earth metal oxides.
Physical properties of Gd
|Atomic (molar) weight mole/h||157.25|
|Melting heat kJ/mole||10|
|Heat conductivity K [V/m*K]||10.5|
|Evaporation heat kJ/mole||328|
Gadolinium is broadly used by electronics, nuclear energetics. It is caused by its nuclear-physical characteristics and high level of workability. Its alloy with iron and cobalt led to invention of new data carriers that have a high recording density. There is grown gallium garnet (singe-crystal gadolinium). This element is requested in manufacture of solid-state lasers that are extensively applied in medicine and at energy-beam processing of metal and stone. Possessing high capability to neutron capture, this element has become a basis of protective shields and absorber fingers of nuclear-power reactors. Oxide Gd2 О3 is used for welding the glass that absorbs thermal neutrons. Hexaboride GdВ6 is utilized in manufacture of X-ray cathodes and powerful electron beam guns.
Gadolinium in alloy with iron is the most capacious hydrogen accumulator. That is why it has found an application in hydrogenic car. Gd 153 is used at osteoporosis diagnostic. When there is needed Kupffer’s block, chloride GdCl3.is applied at treatment of liver. Gadodiamide is a contrast medium. Alloy of nickel and gadolinium is used in manufacture of containers for storage of radioactive wastes. Nowadays, single-crystalline alloy terbium-gadolinium has got a great interest to itself. It is used in manufacture of refrigerators.
Mill-products of gadolinium alloys are represented with bars, sheet, wire on a basis of technical condition and GOST 23 862 13−79 that specify oxide part. GOST 23 862 5−79 specifies spectrum analysis of Gd2 О3.oxide.
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