Terbium metal (ingot)
Terbium is a metal of silvery-white color. It relates to a group of lanthanides. This is an element of the 3rd group of periodic system, where it is designated as Tb. Atomic number is 158,925. It was invented in 1843 by Swedish scientist Carl Gustaf Mosander who had managed to obtain oxides of terbium, erbium, and yttrium by decomposition method for the first time ever. Only 60 years late, French chemist Urbain Jean managed to separate a pure terbium. Its content in earth crust constitutes about 4.3 g/t. It is separated from mixture of rare-earth elements with industrial method. After recovering with metal-thermal method, there can be obtained metallic terbium.
Chemical and physical properties
Melting point is 1356 °C, specific weight is about 8,3 g/cm³, boiling temperature is 3227 °C. This metal is fairly resistant in air at standard conditions. It starts forming hydroxide Tb (OH)3 in boiling water. It dissolves by mineral acids with salifications. TbO oxide is obtained by firing of terbium salts at a temperature of 800−1000°С in air. Dioxide TbO2 is formed at thermal breaking-up of Tb (OH)3. Trivalent terbium ion Tb+3 is more resistant. Quadrivalent ion Tb+4 only exists in a composition of heteropoly compounds.
Physical properties of Tb
|Atomic (molal) weight mole/h||159.925|
|Heat conductivity K [V/m*K]||11.1|
|Molecular volume cm3/mole||19.2|
Manufacture of luminophors, lasers, magnetic and thermoelectric materials, semi-conductive computer details, magnetostrictive alloys. Nowadays, alloy Fe-Tb is the best magnetostrictive material. It is used in manufacture of powerful servo-motors (f.e. telescopes), for ultrasonic transducers with absolute force of sound wave. Besides, there are known new terbium joints, for example, single-crystalline of titanate Tb that has a great magnetostriction. GOST 23 862 15−79 specifies a definition terbium oxide additives.
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