Neodymium (Nd) is a metal of silvery-white color with yellowish tint. It is rare-earth element of lanthanide group. It is easily oxidized in air. It was invented by Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach in 1885. He managed to divide didymium (rare-earth metal that was previously taken for one element) into neodymium and praseodymium. A name of the first one is derived from Greek «new twin». Nowadays, it is obtained by industrial method of calcio-thermal recovering and electrolytic method of anhydritic halogens liquid-alloy. The main suppliers of this metal are the USA, Ukraine, China, Nordic countries, Kazakhstan.
Physical properties of Nd
|Atomic (molal) weight mole/h||144.24|
|Heat conductivity K [V/m*K]||16.5|
|Melting heat kJ/mole||7.1|
Neodymium is one of the most requested lanthanides for manufacture of infra-red lasers with wave length of about 1.067 µm and powerful permanent magnets. With a help of neodymium additives, there is obtained violet glass. Nd2 O3 oxide is a dielectric that possesses minimum coefficient of expansion. NdF3 fluoride is utilized in fiberoptics and manufacture of high-quality fiber-glass filaments. Neodymium is applied for hardening the thermo-electric materials on a basis of selenite, antimony, bismuth, tellurid. It also improves their thermoelectromotive force.
They are used in agricultural industry: the seeds treated with neodymium possess a high germinating and yielding capacity. There are perspective developments of alloying the materials with neodymium on a basis of tellurid, bismuth, caesium. Such alloying improves their properties. This metal is indispensable for alloying of structural alloys and steels. It can increase a strength of pure titanium for 50%. When neodymium interrelates with aluminium, there are formed the joints that increase strength level of every metal individually. Available mill-products made of alloys of neodymium + titanium +aluminium: rod, sheet, wire.
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