Germanium metal (bar)
Germanium is sot metal of silvery color. It is an element of the fourth group of periodic system, where it is designated as Ge. It relates to trace elements. Its atomic weight is 72.59 and specific weight is 5.33 g/cm3. It was invented in 1886 by German scientist. Its name derived from a name of his motherland — Germany. It cannot be met in a pure state. It can only be met as an additive in nickel-tungsten mines, sedimentary rocks, carbone, silicates, turf, thermal water. It can also be stored in algaes.
Germanium is relatively brittle metal. It is not exposed to cold or hot pressure working up to a temperature of 550 °C. Surface film makes it fairly resistant to effect of air, water, salt acid in standard conditions. It weakly reacts with caustic sodas but can be easily dissolved with chloronitrous acid or alkali solution of hydrogen superoxide. Chemical valency is +2 +4. Chemical compounds with high valence are more stable. The most frequently is used dioxide GeO2. .
Physical properties of Ge
|Atomic (molar) weight mole/h||72.64|
|Melting heat kJ/mole||36.8|
|Heat conductivity K [V/m*K]||60.2|
|Evaporation heat kJ/mole||328|
Germanium is obtained by non-ferrous ore processing and out of coal ash. Germanium content is defined with a help of emission spectrum analysis, where it is found by forming of germanium-molybdenum bright-yellow acid. It is smelted by metallurgic method at a temperature of 800−1800°C. To obtain engineering germanium, it must be purified in quartz columns with a help of salt acid by thermal diffusion method that is intended to do crystallization. Manufacture of single-crystalline germanium used in semi-conducting devices specifies by GOST 16 153−80 and technical conditions.
This metal relates to semi-conductors that are used as high-frequency single-crystallines for manufacture of transistors, photoconductive resistors, photodiodes, and diodes. There are made Hall devices, resistant thermometers, lenses of X-ray spectrum analysis. High-tensile germanium spatter is used in jewelry and dentoprosthetic technique. Some alloys on its basis are intended to be used in anticorrosion coverings. Additives of GeO2 dioxide are utilized in alloys, metal mill-products — wire, bar, sheets.
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