Vanadium is an element of the fifth group of periodic system. It is a malleable grey-steel metal that does not contain additives of nitrides and carbides. It possesses chemical reactivity that is caused by a position of this element and completed shell with 18 electrons. It possesses a capability to easily draw into wire. At a standard temperature, it can be rolled into a thin foil. Additives of nitrides and carbides increase hardness and brittleness. Vanadium powder has a grey color.
Physical characteristics of V
|Atomic (molal) weight mole/h||50.9415|
|Oxidation rate||5, 4, 3, 2, 0|
|Melting heat kJ/mole||17.5|
|Heat conductivity K [V/m*K]||30.7|
|Evaporation heat kJ/mole||480|
In standard conditions, compacted vanadium stays lustrous even in a humid environment. After heating in air, powder vanadium changes a color and covers with oxides of different oxidizing level. It can be extensively jointed with chlorine, oxygen, sulfur. It can also dissolve up to 42% of hydrogen. When burning, powder turns into V2 O5. Vanadium powder starts forming nitrides VN, VN2, V3 N during a heating in nitrogen. It forms a tetrachloride in the presence of free chlorine. Metallic vanadium possesses a resistance to effect of different chemical agents. Except for HF, it can be dissolved only in acids that correspond to strong oxidizing agents: chloronitric acid, HN03. This metal can be influenced by alkali solutions but molten alkalis do not dissolve it. Hard carbonaceous reducing agents and carbonaceous gasses form VC carbide at heating.
In a hydrogenous atmosphere, metallic vanadium forms a vanadium hydride that is dehydrated and ground after a while. Firstly, metal is heated up to a temperature of 200−300°C in vacuum and then in atmosphere of Н2 that is formed after thermal destruction of titanium hydride with a transformation into unsaturated state. Compacted vanadium becomes active in a temperature range of 600−800°C. Hydrogenation is performed in a temperature range of 50−200°C. At grinding of vanadium hydride to a powder-like form, its dehydration is performed at a t° of 650°- 800 °C with a holding to a residual pressure of 0.05−0.5 millimetres of mercury and an absorbing of non-saturated separated titanium hydride. This method is intended for obtaining of vanadium high-purity powder made of compacted metal. It is manufactured on a specially developed apparatus that is composed of forevaccum pump, retort of heat-resistant steels, a main for vacuum processing and transportation of hydrogen with stop-valves, control-measuring equipment and the electrical furnaces intended for retort heating.
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