Hafnium is a refractory, silvery-white metal, a classic member of the class of trace elements. In nature it does not form minerals and exists in the form of compounds. Its best known composition is with zirconium (which is very similar to it in its characteristics), but there is even more of it in tortveitite (scandium mineral). Hafnium is used in nickel and iron alloys with high heat resistance characteristics. The melting point of the element is over 2150 °C and its boiling point is 5400 °C. This element, like such refractory metals as tungsten and molybdenum, is very popular in the nuclear power, radio engineering, and electrical industries. This is especially true in the production of filaments of incandescent lamps, as well as discharge tubes.
Physical properties of hafnium
|Specific gravity||3.3 g/cm³|
|Melting point||2233 °C, 4051 °F|
|Boiling point||4603 °C, 8317 °F|
|Specific heat of melting||25,1 kJ/mol|
|Specific heat of vaporization||575 kJ/mol|
|Oxidation degree||0, 2, 3, 4|
A heavy refractory silvery-white metal was discovered in 1923. It is designated by the symbol Hf (lat. Hafnium). The average content in the lithosphere is about 4 g/t. Hafnium is produced by processing zirconium ores, as it has no minerals of its own and always accompanies zirconium.
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