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TU 14-1-312-72

UDC 669.14−422.13

MINISTRY OF FERROUS METALLURGY OF THE USSR

ODR 4648−72 / 3

Agreed:

Deputy Chief Chief
Technical Office

/ Stroganov G. B. /

3 / UP-72

UDC

Group B32

I approve:

Deputy Chief of the Chief
Of the MCHM Technical Office
/ Sheftel N.I. /
2 / UP-72 g.

TO / TU 14−1-312

Amendment No. Approved 21 / V
Misprint No. 1973.

BARS AND WASHERS FROM STEEL Kh12N22T3M3 (EP33)

Technical conditions
TU 14−1-312−72

(Instead of ChMTU / TsNIICHM 1275−65)

Agreed:

Head laboratory 8
/ Kolyasnikova R.I. /

Ch. engineer of Glavspetsstal MCHM
/ Kultygin V.S. /

Designed by:

Deputy Head of VIAM
/ Sklyarov N.M. /
Head of laboratory
/ Glezer M.D. /

05/13/72 g.

Sheet 1
TU 14−1-312−72

These specifications apply to forged and rolled rods and washers made of heat-resistant steel grade X12N22T3MR (EP33).

Steel is smelted in open electric furnaces or by the method of vacuum-arc remelting (steel in this case is designated with the code EP33-VD). The smelting method is specified in the order.

1. VARIETY

1.1. Bars of round or square cross-section with knocked down corners are supplied with a diameter or a side of a square up to 240 mm. Washers are delivered without running-in and without sphericity (barrel) control.

In terms of shape, size and tolerances for them, the rods must meet the requirements of the relevant standards for the assortment: rolled — GOST 4692−57, GOST 4693−57 and GOST 1133−41, forged in accordance with GOST 1133−41; moreover, rods with a cross-section of more than 75 to 180 mm are supplied with two-sided tolerances, which are individually equal to the plus tolerance of GOST 1133−41 .

Bars with a cross section of more than 180 mm are supplied with tolerances of plus 10, minus 5 mm.

The delivery of rods is made in length in accordance with GOST 1133−41 or as agreed with the consumer.

1.2. The weight and dimensions of the washers must correspond to the drawings agreed between the supplier and the consumer.

2. TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

2.1. The chemical composition of steel Kh12N22T3MR of both smelting methods must meet the requirements specified in table. 1.

Sheet 2
TU 14−1-312−72

Table 1

Chemical composition, %
steel grade Carbon Silicon Manganese Chromium Nickel Titanium Molybdenum Aluminum Sulfur Phosphorus Boron
no more no more
EP 33, EP33-VD 0.1 0.6 0.6 10.0−12.5 21.0−25.0 2.60−3.20 1.0−1.6 0.8 0.010 0.020 0.020


Note. Boron is introduced by calculation and is not determined by chemical analysis.

2.2. Bars and washers are supplied thermally untreated and without hardness testing.

2.3. Mechanical properties determined on samples cut from heat-treated workpieces must meet the requirements of table. 2 for tests at room temperature and table. 3 when tested for long-term strength.

2.4. Bars of square cross-section with a side of a square of 80 mm and more, round rods with a diameter of 100 mm and more, and washers are subjected to ultrasonic testing according to the method of the Electrostal plant. Bars of square cross-section are subjected to ultrasonic testing along two adjacent edges, round ones — along two longitudinal flats located in mutually perpendicular planes.

The washers are ultrasonically tested on one end surface.

A rejection sign is the presence of a defect, the echo signal from which exceeds the echo signal from the control reflector 3 mm in diameter, located at the same or closest depth (with an accuracy of ± 10 mm);

Sheet 3
TU 14−1-312−72

in this case, the conditional length of the defect with a depth of its occurrence up to 150 mm should not exceed 15 mm, and with a defect depth of more than 150 mm it should not exceed the allowable one, according to the schedule of the Electrostal plant.

100% of bars and washers are subjected to ultrasonic testing.

2.5. The macrostructure of the rods should be free of voids, holes, cracks, delamination, coarse porosity, slag inclusions identified by deep etching and visible to the naked eye.

If necessary, it is allowed to agree on the scale of standards for the macrostructure of bars between the supplier and the consumer.

The macrostructure of the washers should be free of voids, fistulas, cracks, delamination, pore accumulations, slag inclusions and rough defects visible to the naked eye.

2.6. Bars and washers should not have cracks, slag inclusions, captivity and sunsets on the surface. If the listed defects are found, they should be removed by gentle cleaning. The depth of stripping of bar defects should not exceed the tolerance (sum of deviations) in size, counting from the nominal.

Separate small dents and ripples within the one-sided tolerance (plus) are allowed without stripping.

On washers going into hot fur processing, it is allowed to clean the forgings from the ends to a depth of no more than 20 mm and no more than 30 mm from the side surface, which does not bring the washer weight beyond the permissible limits.

On washers intended for subsequent cold machining, the depth of the tuck of surface defects should not be more than ¾ of the machining allowance, counting from the face value. The stripping width must be at least six times the depth.

3. RULES OF ACCEPTANCE AND TEST METHODS

3.1. Bars or washers are presented for acceptance in batches consisting of one heat.

Sheet 4
TU 14−1-312−72

Note. Vacuum melting is completed with no more than 12 ingots melted in a mold of the same section, with an identical electrical mode, from the electrodes of the same initial melting.

3.2. Upon presentation of the bars, the supplier plant is obliged to present the chemical composition of the heat batch.

3.3. Mechanical properties and long-term strength are determined on longitudinal specimens cut from forged, heat-treated square billets with a side size of 80−100 mm and a length of at least 70 mm.

The axes of the cut samples should coincide with the middle of the radius of the circle inscribed in the cross section of the workpiece. The hardness is measured on the surface of the sample, smoothed to a depth of at least 2 mm.

Note. On bars with a diameter or side of a square up to 100 mm, the control of mechanical properties and long-term strength is carried out in the supplied profile.

3.4. Determination of the mechanical properties of metal at room temperature is carried out: tensile test — according to GOST 1497−61 on two samples with a diameter of 5 or 10 mm with an estimated length of determination of impact strength — according to GOST 9454−60 on two samples from the heat.

3.5. Determination of long-term strength is carried out on two samples from the heat according to GOST 10145−62, determination of Brinell hardness — according to 9012−59.

3.6. The control of the macrostructure of the rods is carried out in the finished grade on a template cut off from the end of one rod.

The control of the macrostructure of the washers is carried out by examining with the naked eye the surface of each washer, milled for ultrasonic inspection, in an un-etched state. In cases of doubt, local etching is used.

Sheet 5
TU 14−1-312−72

3.7. If unsatisfactory results are obtained on macrocontrol, this bar or washer is discarded. It is allowed to retest on two more rods or washers from the batch.

In case of unsatisfactory results of repeated inspection on at least one bar or washer, the supplier plant is given the right to present the melt again after 100% inspection of the remaining bars or washers.

3.8. In case of unsatisfactory results of tests of long-term strength and mechanical properties on at least one sample, a second test is performed on a double number of samples of the type that gave unsatisfactory results.

3.9. In the case of unsatisfactory results when retesting at least one sample, it is allowed to forge a new workpiece with heat treatment according to the mode specified in the TU, on the same number of samples as during the initial test with the determination of all characteristics of mechanical properties and long-term strength.

In the case of unsatisfactory results of this test, the melt is considered a defect.

3.10. All bars and washers are monitored for surface conditions, dimensions and weight.

3.11. Sampling for determining the chemical composition is carried out in accordance with GOST 7565−66. Chemical analysis of steel is carried out in accordance with GOST 12344−66 — GOST 12365−66 or by another method that ensures the accuracy of determination required by the standard.

4. MARKING

4.1. All rods with a size of 25 mm or more and washers must be stamped with the trademark of the supplier, steel grade, heat number. Bars less than 25 mm in size must be tied into bundles, which are attached to a metal tag with the indicated stamps.

4.2. The certificate shall indicate the results of all tests provided for by these specifications, including the results of initial tests, if the batch is handed over according to the results of repeated tests. The certificate must be signed by the quality control department of the supplying plant and the technical acceptance of the MAP.

Registered: 10 / UP-72
Head by the technical department of TsNIICHM / Kaplan A.S. /

Sheet 6
TU 14−1-312−72

table 2

steel grade Heat treatment mode for control blanks Mechanical properties, not less Brinell hardness (dia. Mm)
Tensile strength Yield point Relative Impact strength
Elongation Constriction
kgf / mm 2 % kgcm / cm 2
EP33

Option I

Hardening: heating to 1100−1170 °, holding for 2−5 hours, cooling in air or in oil; aging at 750−800 ° for 16−25 hours, air cooling

90 60 eight ten 3 3.4−3.8
EP33-VD Also 90 60 eight 12 3 3.4−3.8
EP33

Option II

Hardening: heating to 950−1050 °, holding for 2−5 hours in oil; aging at 730−780 ° for 16 hours, additional aging at 600−650 ° for 10−16 hours, air cooling

100 70 ten 12 3 3.20−3.50
EP33-VD Also 100 70 12 fourteen 3 3.20−3.50


Note.

  • The variant of testing (heat treatment) is specified by the user in the order. Upon receipt of unsatisfactory test results according to option II, tests (new control blanks) are allowed to be carried out according to option I, which in this case is arbitration.
  • Full or partial re-heat treatment is allowed.

Sheet 7
TU 14−1-312−72

Table 3

steel grade Heat treatment mode Long-term durability
Test temperature,
° C
Constantly applied voltage
kgf / mm2
Time before destruction
hour, not less
EP 33, EP33-VD Option I 750 thirty 50
700 40 100
Option II 600 58 50


Notes.

  • The test option (temperature) is specified by the user in the order.
  • If unsatisfactory test results are obtained according to the II variant, repeated and arbitration tests are carried out according to the I variant (according to any of the specified test modes).

MINISTRY OF FERROUS METALLURGY OF THE USSR
CENTRAL ORDER OF LABOR RED BANNER
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF FERROUS METALLURGY
THEM. I.P. BARDINE

21 / 05.73 g.
TO / TU 14−1-312

107843, Moscow, B-b, 2nd Baumanskaya st., 9/23. Phone 267−01−02, ref. 1−00. For telegrams — Moscow

ODR 3432073/3

TO THE CHIEF ENGINEER OF THE ELECTROSTAL PLANT

TOV. V. N. ZHUCHIN

REPLACE. CHIEF CHIEF TECHNICAL
MANAGEMENT MCHM USSR
TOV. N. I. SHEFTEL

HEAD OF VIAM LABORATORY

TOV. Berenson V.F.

TO THE CHIEF ENGINEER OF GLAVSPETSSTAL MFM USSR

TOV. V. S. KULTYGIN

REPLACE. HEAD OF THE HEAD OF THE MFM USSR

TOV. G. B. STROGANOV

REPLACE. HEAD OF THE UNION

TOV. E.K. STEINBERG

TO A MEMBER OF THE STATE COMMITTEE PRICE OF THE USSR Council of Ministers

TOV. A. I. ILYIN

HEAD OF VIFS

TOV. M.E. GOLANTU

NIIEChM

TOV. V. I. CHECHPLANOV

TO THE CHIEF ENGINEER OF THE CHELYABINSK METAL PLANT

TOV. O. A. LABUNOVICH

AMENDMENT LETTER
to TU 14−1-312−72 «Bars and washers made of steel
grade Х12Н22Т3МР (EP33) «.

1. Delivery of metal (washers and rods) from the press shall be excluded from the technical conditions since 16 / X-1973.

2. Clause 1.1.

Replace the reference to GOST 1133−41 with GOST 1133−71 .
For rolled bars link to GOST 1133−41 to replace the reference to the GOST 2590−71.
Apply the third phrase to rods over 200 mm.

3. Clause 1.2 shall be deleted from 16 / X-1973.

Base:

1. Replacement of GOST 1133−41 with GOST 1133−71, GOST 1133−41 in terms of hot-rolled bars with GOST 2590−71 .

2. Technical conditions TU 14−1-312−72 from 16 / X-73 were replaced in terms of metal from the press TU 14−1-569−73.

3. Letter No. 35 / 2−3-89 dated 3/IV-73 of the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant.

Head Technical department
TsNIICHM / Kaplan A.S. /

Ministry of ferrous metallurgy of the USSR

AGREED:

Deputy chief chief
technical management

p / p G. B. Stroganov

Printing

«18». 07.1973

UDC

Group B-32

APPROVED:

Chief Engineer of Glavspetsstal
MCHM
p / n V.S. Kultygin

Printing

«02» .08.1973

BARS AND WASHERS FROM STEEL Х12Н22Т3М3
(EP33)

Technical conditions
TU 14−1-312−72

Change No. 1

STATE
COMMITTEE OF STANDARDS
Council of the USSR Ministry
Registered and entered in the register
state registration
28.03.77 for No. 98863

Introduction period: from 09.10.73

The note of paragraph 3.3 shall be stated as follows:

«On bars with a diameter or side of a square up to 100 mm, control the mechanical properties and long-term strength in the supplied profile. It is allowed to carry out tests in a large profile and extend the test results to smaller ones. The supplier guarantees that the properties will be obtained in accordance with the requirements of these technical specifications. «

AGREED:

Chief engineer of the plant «Electrostal"
p / p V.N. Zhuchin
«02» .07.1973

DEVELOPED:

Deputy Head of VIAM
n / a N.M. Sklyarov
Head of laboratory
n / a V.F. Berenson

Registered: 09.08.

Head technical
Department of TsNIICHM A.S. Kaplan

Correct: 27.3.77. 988 63

Ministry of ferrous metallurgy of the USSR

STATE
COMMITTEE OF STANDARDS
Council of the USSR Ministry
Registered and entered in the register
state registration
05/03/77 for No. 102364

AGREED:

Chief Engineer Chief
technical management

Stroganov G.B.
«21». 06.1976

UDC

Group B-32

APPROVED:

Chief Engineer
VPO «Soyuzspetsstal"
Kultygin V.S.

«23» .06.1977

BARS AND WASHERS FROM STEEL Kh12N22T3M3 (EP33)

TECHNICAL CONDITIONS
TU 14−1-312−72

Change No. 2

Introduction period: from 18.02.77

1. The technical conditions are valid until 01.01.82.

2. Clause 3.11 shall be amended as follows:

«Sampling for determining the chemical composition is carried out in accordance with GOST 7565−73. Chemical analysis of steel is carried out in accordance with GOST 12344−66, GOST 12365−68 and GOST 20560−75, or by another method that ensures the accuracy of determination required by the standard. «

3. Section 4 shall be supplemented with clause 4.3 as follows:

«When assigning a Quality Mark to a product, the Quality Mark designation is made in accordance with GOST 1 .9−67.

AGREED:

Deputy Head of VIAM

Sklyarov N.M.

Head laboratory of standardization
TSNIICHI
Kolyasnikova R.I.

DEVELOPED:

And about. chief engineer

plant «Electrostal»

Kosyrev L.K.

22.11.77

Correct to believe.

Registered by TsNIICHM: 18.01.

Head department of standardization
Meandrov L.V.

102364 35.77
28.3.77 98864
9.2.77 97776

STATE
COMMITTEE OF STANDARDS
Council of the USSR Ministry
Registered and entered in the register
state registration
81.09.30 for No. 93408/03
07 SEP 1981
Copy
Group B 32

MINISTRY OF FERROUS METALLURGY OF THE USSR

AGREED:

Chief Engineer Chief
technical management

G.B. Stroganov
signature

«05/26/81

seal

APPROVED:

Chief Engineer VPO «Soyuzspetsstal

signature

"16» .06.81
seal

BARS AND WASHERS FROM STEEL Kh12N22T3M3 (EP33)

TECHNICAL CONDITIONS
TU 14−1-312−72

CHANGE # 3

Introduction date: 01.01.82

1. The term of validity of technical conditions is extended until 01.01.87.

2. In clause 3.4. GOST 9454−60 should be replaced by GOST 9454−78 .

3. In clause 3.11, the second sentence shall be stated as follows:

«Chemical analysis of steel is performed according to GOST 12344−78, 12345−80, 123476−78, 12347−77, 12348−78, 12349−66, 12350−78, 12351−66, 12352−66, 12353−78, 12354−66, 12355−78, 12356−66, 12362−66, 12363−79, 12364−66, 12365−66 and GOST 20560−75 or another method that ensures the accuracy of the determination required by the standard.

4. In clause 1.1. GOST 4692−57 shall be replaced by OST 14−13−75, GOST 4693−57 shall be replaced with GOST 4693−77 .

AGREED:

Deputy Head of VIAM

n / a N.M. Sklyarov

Head of laboratory

n / a V.F. Berenson

Head laboratory of standardization
special steels TSNIICHM

V.T. Ababkov

DEVELOPED:

Chief engineer of the plant
Electrostal

p / p L.K. Kosyrev

«24» .04.81

Registered by TsNIICHM: 07.24.81

Head department of standardization
ferrous metallurgy V.T. Ababkov

Copy is right:

Ministry of ferrous metallurgy of the USSR

AGREED:

Chief Engineer Chief
technical management

V.D. Talalaev

«05» .04.85

APPROVED:

Chief Engineer

VPO «Soyuzspetsstal"
MCHM USSR

N.I. Drozdov
08.03.85 g.

BARS AND WASHERS FROM STEEL Kh12N22T3M3 (EP33)

TECHNICAL CONDITIONS
TU 14−1-312−72

AMENDMENT # 4

Introduction period:

AGREED:

Deputy Head of VIAM

N.M. Sklyarov

Head of laboratory

V.F. Berenson

02/15/85 g.

DEVELOPED:

Chief Engineer

Plant «Electrostal»

K. Ya. Fedotkin

28.02.84 g.

1. The introductory part of the TU shall be supplemented with the paragraph «Indicators of the technical level established by these specifications correspond to the highest quality category.

2. Clause 2.3., Table. 2:

  STATE
COMMITTEE OF STANDARDS
Council of the USSR Ministry
Registered and entered in the register
state registration
85.07.02 No. 093408/04

In the column «Tensile strength» write:

  σ in
N / mm 2
(kgf / mm 2)
Option I    
EP33 880 (90)
EP33-VD 880 (90)

Change No. 4
to TU 14−1-312−72

  σ in
N / mm 2
(kgf / mm 2)
Option 2    
EP33 980 (100)
EP33-VD 980 (100)


In the column «Yield point» write:

  σ 0.2
N / mm 2
(kgf / mm 2)
Option 1    
EP33 590 (60)
EP33-VD 590 (60)
Option 2    
EP33 685 (70)
EP33-VD 685 (70)


In the column «Impact strength» write down:

  A n
J / cm 2
(kgcm / cm 2)
Option 1    
EP33 29 (3)
EP33-VD 29 (3)
Option 2    
EP33 29 (3)
EP33-VD 29 (3)

3. Clause 2.3., Table. 3:

In the «Constant-applied voltage» column, write down:

  N / mm 2 (kgf / mm 2)
at 750 ° C 294 (thirty)
at 700 ° C 392 (40)
at 600 ° C 569 (58)

Change No. 4
to TU 14−1-312−72

4. Clause 3.5. the reference to GOST 10145−62 should be replaced by GOST 10145−81 .

5. Clause 3.11. to state in edition:

«Sampling for determining the chemical composition is carried out in accordance with GOST 7565−81. The chemical composition of the steel is produced according to GOST 12344−78, GOST 12345−80, GOST 12346−78, GOST 12347−77, GOST 12348−78, GOST 12350−78, GOST 12352−81, GOST 12354−81, GOST 12356−81, GOST 12357−84, GOST 12360−82 and GOST 20560−81 or another method providing the required accuracy of determination.

6. TU shall be supplemented with section 5. «TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE» and paragraph 5.1. in edition: «Transportation and storage in accordance with GOST 7566−81 «.

7. Wholesale prices are published in the Handbook No. 1 of wholesale prices for bar steel to avenue No. 01−08, pp. 69−72.

Agreed:
Head laboratory of standardization
special steels TSNIICHM
V.T. Ababkov

Registered by TsNIICHM: 05/13/85

Head department of standardization
ferrous metallurgy

V.T. Ababkov

Re
4/2543

Ministry of ferrous metallurgy of the USSR

AGREED:
Chief of the Chief
Technical management
MAP USSR
V.P. Talalaev
06.24.86 g.

UDC
Group B32

DEVELOPED:
Chief Engineer
VPO «Soyuzspetsstal"
N.I. Drozdov

06/30/86

BARS FROM STEEL 10ХН23Т3МР (ЭП33)

TECHNICAL CONDITIONS
TU 14−1-312−72

Changes No. 5

Introduction period …

AGREED:
Deputy Head of VIAM
N.M. Sklyarov

Head of laboratory

VIAM

V.F. Berenson

Head laboratory of standardization
special steels and alloys
TsNIICHM

V.T. Ababkov

DEVELOPED:
Chief Engineer
plant «Electrostal"
K. Ya. Fedotkin

04/22/86 g.

USSR State Committee for Standards
ALL-UNION
INFORMATION CENTRE
STANDARDS AND TECHNICAL CONDITIONS
REGISTERED AND LISTED IN THE REGISTER
STATE REGISTRATION
86.08.11 for No. 93408/05

1. Extend the validity period of the technical conditions until 01.08.91.

2. Clause 3.4. Replace reference: GOST 1497−73 with GOST 1497−84 .

REGISTERED by TsNIICHM: 07/18/86
Head department of standardization
ferrous metallurgy V.T. Ababkov

24/7

Ministry of ferrous metallurgy of the USSR

OKP 09 6400

REGISTERED
MCSM GOSSTANDART
093408/06
02.08.90 g.

UDC

Group B-32

APPROVED:

Deputy Director TSNIICHERMET

V.A. Sinelnikov

07.25.90

BARS FROM STEEL 10KH12N22T3M3 (EP33)

TECHNICAL CONDITIONS
TU 14−1-312−72

Change No. 6

Original holder — TSNIICHERMET

08.21.90
28.11.90

Introduction date: 24.09.90

AGREED:

Deputy Head of VIAM

E. B. Kachanov

«___" ____ 1990

DEVELOPED:

Chief Engineer

Plant «Electrostal»

A.P. Sisev

«___" _____ 1990

1. The validity period of the technical conditions is extended until 01.01.2000.

2. In the introductory part, delete the phrase: «The indicators of the technical level established by these specifications correspond to the highest quality category.»

3. Section 1, clause 1.1. to state in a new edition:

«The metal is supplied in rods from 8 mm to 240 mm.
In terms of shape, size and limit deviations, the rods must meet the requirements:


a) hot rolled

Ø8 ± 55 mm — GOST 2590−88 for normal rolling precision;
Ø60−70 mm — with maximum deviations of +2.5 mm (on the rolling mill stand 350/250 mm);
Ø75 mm — with maximum deviations of +3.0 mm.
The ovality of the bars should not exceed 0.5 sum of the maximum deviations in diameter.
The curvature of the bars should not exceed 5 mm per 1 m of length.


b) forged Ø60 ± 240 mm — GOST 22411−77 .
The length of the rods is not shorter than 0.5 m.

4. Section 2, clause 2.1 shall be amended as follows:

«The chemical composition of steel 10Kh11N23T3MR of both smelting methods must meet the requirements of GOST 5632−72.

5. Section 4, clause 4.3 shall be deleted.

The examination was carried out: 07.24.90
Head laboratory of standardization
Special steels and alloys
V.T. Ababkov

28/1325

USSR Ministry of Metallurgy

OKP 09 6400

Group B-32

APPROVED:

Deputy Director of the Central Research Institute

V.A. Sinelnikov

09/02/91

10/17/91

BARS FROM STEEL 10KH12N22T3M3 (EP33)

TECHNICAL CONDITIONS
TU 14−1-312−72

Change No. 7

Introduction date: 02.11.91 Original holder — TSNIICHM

AGREED:

Deputy Director General

NPO VIAM

E. B. Kachanov

12.07.91

DEVELOPED:

Chief Engineer

plant «Electrostal»

A.P. Sisev

02/20/91 g.

1. In the name of TU (changes 4, 5, 6) correct a typo in the brand name, read 10X11H23T3MR (EP33).

2. To extend the introductory part of the TU to rods — a press of a product.

3. Section 1 «Assortment» shall be supplemented with item «c».

c) rods — product press Ø80 ± 130 mm. In terms of shape, size and limit deviations, bars — press products must meet the requirements of GOST 22411−77.

10/21/91
REGISTERED
MCSM GOSSTATNDART
093408/07 dated 09/27/1991

6817

Change No. 7
to TU 14−1-312−72

4. Clause 3.3 shall be supplemented with a paragraph as amended:

«It is allowed for bars-press products to carry out control of mechanical properties on samples cut from the supplied profile.

The examination was carried out: 09/02/91
Head laboratory
standardization spec. steels
and alloys TSNIICHM

V.T. Ababkov