Sheet, strip and foil made of tantalum
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Tantalum is heat-resistant and refractory metal, melting point of which is 2996 °C. It is malleable a gold. At the same time, it is hard metal that can be rolled into very thin foil. Tantalum has a number of valuable properties that allow using it in electrical engineering: high heat resistance, emission capability, capability to occlude gasses (that gives a possibility to hold deep vacuum needed to electrical tubes).
Physical properties of Ta
|Atomic (molar) weight mole/h||180.9|
|Melting heat kJ/mole||24.7|
|Heat conductivity K [V/m*K]||57.5|
|Evaporation heat kJ/mole||758|
Tantalum and its compounds do not form toxic materials in working area. They relate to a material of the fourth danger class. Tantalum sheet, strip are made by rolling of semi-fabricated billets that are obtained with a help of powder metallurgy (on completing of carbon recovery of metallic tantalum) by baking the blanket with vacuum-arc, plasma-arc or electron-beam welding. Tantalum strip is manufactured according to GOST 15 515−70 with a thickness of 0.05−2 mm and decreasing divergences up to 0.01−0.1 mm of thickness.
By agreement with the customer, strip with a thickness of 0.1−0.5 mm is manufactured with a length of 100 meters. Such a strip must have smooth, clean surface with visible welding seams. A weight of tantalum strip, sheet at a density of 16.6 g/cm3 can be in a range of 0.5−18 kg/m2 depending on thickness. Dimensions of tantalum sheet: a thickness — 5 mm, a width — 500−800 mm, a length — 500−2000 mm. There is allowed a length divergence up to 20 mm. Tantalum sheets can be of specified, random, multiple and aliquot to 100 length. They are manufactured in accordance with GOST 492−73 standards. As long as a quality of tantalum sheets directly depends on additives, there are developed special rigorous standards of quality control. Part of such elements as aluminium, iron, vanadium, calcium, magnesium, silicon, manganese, nickel, copper, tin, chrome, titanium, zirconium must not exceed more than tenths of percent in pure tantalum according to GOST 18 904 6−89.
Tantalum sheets are often used in mechanical engineering, rocket building, petroleum chemistry. In metallurgy, tantalum sheet can serve in the capacity of charge mixture — along with other minerals and metals. Tantalum alloying is utilized for the most corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloys. Due to expensiveness of this metal that is caused by difficulty of its processing and mining, pure tantalum is usually used for cladding.
Currently, there is invented a method of covering with tantalum layer of large products with different thickness — billets, pips, rocket engines, sheets. An interesting fact: Brinell hardness of tantalum covering constitutes 180−200 kg/mm2. Strength of engineering tantalum in the form of sheet or annealed bar constitutes 50−80 kg/mm2. Tantalum carbide along with tungsten is unparalleled material for drilling of strongest rocks by percussive method. It is also indispensable for metal processing of tool steel. Tantalum is utilized in the capacity of metal jacketing for hollow-charge armor-piercing projectiles. Nowadays, tantalum beryllide became an indispensable and much-requested as far as it is very hard and resistant to oxidizing.
ТаО5 additive to glass is applied in experimental physics and nuclear energetics.
Such glass hinders gamma-rays. Tantalum is also used in electrical engineering for manufacture of high-capacity condensers and current rectifiers. In such condensers, there are used tantalum tablets obtained by powder metallurgy method. They are baked and pressed at high temperatures. Active surface of porous tantalum tablet increases hundredfold. It gives a possibility to obtain small condenser dimensions at high capacity. Tantalum condensers are also applied in combat radio set as long as they can operate in the most extreme condition at a temperature of -80 +200°С. Recently, tantalum has become one more jewelery metal because it can form a hard oxide film of different colors on a surface.
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