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Stainless steel pipe manufacturing process

Manufacturing steps

The tube billet is centered and heated in the heating furnace to 1200°C before being rolled. The tube is rolled through the following stages: first the billet is pierced into a hollow sleeve, followed by rolling of the sleeve, rolling, polishing of the tube surface (both outside and inside), calibration and straightening.


The billet is turned into a thermowell in a piercing mill with barrel, disc or mushroom rolls. The rolls rotate in one direction. The rolls cause the workpiece to rotate in the opposite direction in a forward motion. A conical mandrel is located between the rolls, the other end of which is supported in a rotating support bearing. When the workpiece arrives at the piercing, the rolls themselves and the friction forces exert pressure on the workpiece. Therefore, the mandrel easily penetrates the axial part of the billet, forming the sleeve wall.

Automatic tube rolling mill

The mill has 2 stands that contain the rolling rolls. The rolls are used to form a round gauge. The pipe is crimped between the rotating rolls and the stationary mandrel as it moves. The diameter of the tube is reduced in accordance with the calibre. Generally the tube is rolled in 2 to 3 passes.

Rolling mill

This is used to roll out the inner and outer surface irregularities in the tube. The rolls are arranged vertically at an angle of 6 to 6.5° from each other. In the horizontal plane, the axes of the rolls are parallel. The convergence or divergence of the rolls determines the rolling force.

Calibration mill

This is to give the tubes an accurate outside diameter. This mill usually consists of 5 or 7 stands. Each of these stands has 2 to 3 rolls with round or oval gauges. In the sizing mill rolls rotate in opposite directions. The rolls grip the pipe and it is crimped in the calibers to its diameter, while gaining more accurate dimensions.

Reduction mill

Consists of 10, 12, 18, 24 stands. Each stand has 3 to 4 rolls. This allows a more uniform pipe compression during rolling. Pre-heated tubes enter the reduction mill at up to 1100°C. Running through all the rolls, the tube is elongated and thereby reduced in diameter.

Cooling table

On the cooling table, there are a series of moving chains. With these chains, the finished tube is rolled over and over as it cools. When the temperature is low enough, without any risk of distortion or buckling, the tube is cold straightened.


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