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Materials and technology for titanium welding

Technical Characteristics

Whatever welding is used in the work with titanium alloys, the main thing is that it is important not to allow the metal to overheat. Otherwise the risk of weld defects (pores, cold cracks , etc.) increases significantly. The best welding electrodes are WL alloyed with lanthanum. The addition of lanthanum oxide significantly reduces the contamination of the weld with tungsten, which subsequently has a positive effect on its quality. Regarding the use of filler wire, the most commonly used is cold drawn titanium wire. At the same time, it is very important that its composition is as close as possible to the base material. For example, titanium rod makes it possible to achieve a welding seam with a strength equal to 80% of the titanium alloy.

Basic Welding Methods

Since titanium welding cannot be carried out with an "inverter" type apparatus, in practice one of the following options is used:

submerged arc welding;

- arc welding with a consumable and non-consumable electrode in an inert gas;

- electron-beam;

- electroslag;

- contact.

Arc welding under inert gas shielding.

Automatic or manual welding is performed with a non-consumable tungsten electrode that contains lanthanum or yttrium, whereas automatic or semi-automatic welding is performed with a consumable electrode. High purity helium or argon or their mixture is used for protection.

Tungsten electrode welding

It is by far the most popular. It is carried out in the air with standard equipment for argon-arc welding by direct current with a non-consumable electrode.

Submerged arc welding

Titanium and titanium alloys are welded without oxygen under ANT-1, 3 flux. Metal thickness is 2.5-8 mm, and for thicker sheets ANT-7 is used. Before welding flux ignited at t ° from 200 to 400 ° C to reduce its moisture content to 0.05% by mass. Such welding is carried out on conventional equipment with direct current of reverse polarity.

Electro-Slag Welding

This method is used for joining titanium or titanium alloys with a thickness of 8-12 mm. In this case plate electrodes of the same composition as the metal to be welded and with a width equal to the thickness of the part during welding are used.

Electron-beam welding

This method of joining titanium alloys gives a fine-grained structure of the weld and reliable protection against gas corrosion. This welding is used for metal thicknesses up to 160 mm. In some cases, in order to prevent delamination and pores, welding with horizontal beam placement is used.


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