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Specific resistance chromel, alumel, copel, constantan, BP5, BP20

Technical characteristic

Alumel is a 93-96% nickel-based thermo-electrode alloy. Percentage composition

Ni Al Mn Si Co Impurities
93-96% 1,8-2,5% 1,8-2,2% 0,8-1,2% ≤ 0,5% ≤ 0,5%

The specific electrical resistance is 0.32 Ohmxmm2/m, the melting point is 1440 °C, the coefficient of linear thermal expansion is 13.7-10-6/°C, the density is 8.48 g/cm³, the annealing temperature is 950 °C. Improving the consumer properties is achieved by adding alloying elements, which stabilizes the thermal EMF, increases the plasticity index, provides long-term strength and allows the use of this alloy at temperatures up to 1300 °C.

Constantan is a copper-nickel thermocouple alloy. Percentage composition

Ni Cu Mn Si Impurities
43-44% 57-60% 1-2% ≤ 0,2% ≤ 0,5%

The electrical resistivity of constantan is at 0.4 Ohmxmm2/m, as evidenced by numerous tables of physical properties of the alloy. It is traditionally used as an element for devices with low accuracy class.

Kopel is a thermocouple copper-nickel alloy. Percentage composition.

Ni Cu Fe Si Co Impurities
43-44% 52-53% 2-3% ≤ 0,5% ≤ 0,2% ≤ 0,5%

The density is 8.9 g/cm³ and the melting point is 1290 °C. It is annealed at 800-850 °C and hotworked at 1150 °C. The resistivity coefficient is 0.5 Ohmxmm2/m and the linear expansion is 1410-6/°C. At 100 °C the thermoelectric strength is 6.95 volts, and at 600 °C it rises to 49 volts.

Chromel is an 89-91% nickel-based thermocouple alloy. The percentage composition of

Ni Cr Mn Si Co Impurities
89-91% 8,7-10% 1,8-2,2% 0,8-1,2% ≤ 0,5% ≤ 0,5%

Thermal-electromotive force of BP5, BP20

During cooling to 1600 °C, the nominal thermo-electromotive force also decreases to 24.59 mV. This figure for t° 1500 °C is no more than 23.31 mV, and for t°1400 °C the level of nominal thermo-EMF is 21.97 mV. The advantages of the alloys are determined by tungsten and rhenium. Tungsten is one of the heaviest, refractory, hardest metals. Its melting point is 3,410 °C, and its boiling point is the same as the surface of the sun at 6,690 °C. Tungsten alloys lead all other alloys in refractoriness and hardness. It is slightly inferior to rhenium, which has a melting point of 3170 °C and a boiling point of 5870 °C. In terms of heat resistance, rhenium is far ahead of other metals, has high strength and resistance to corrosion.


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