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Mechanical tests of metals and alloys

In order to evaluate the characteristics of a material, methods of testing the mechanical properties of metals are used, which are divided into two groups. To be fair, it is worth noting that there are other methods of testing - chemical, optical, physical, etc .

Mechanical methods of control

Depending on the load used: they are divided into

-static (gradual) loading

-Dynamic (impact) loading.

For example, tensile tests of the mechanical properties of metals belong to the first group, and their main purpose - registration of deformation. The force applied to the specimen is entered into a diagram, and this continues until the elastic limit of the specimen is reached. Further application of force to the material will cause it to fail.

Also mechanical tests of metals and alloys include a scheme of investigation to determine the parameters:

-shock toughness;

-fatigue (most often in flexure);


-deep drawing;



Symbol Mechanical properties Dimension unit
s in Ultimate short-term strength MPa
sT Continuity (yield strength for permanent deformation) MPa
d5 Tensile elongation at break %
y Relative narrowing %
KCU Impact toughness kJ/m2
HB Brinell hardness , MPa

Steel grade

The first thing to do is to find out which group the product belongs to - carbon or alloyed steel. For example, carbon alloy grades are divided into groups: A, B and C. After one of these letters (A is not specified), as a rule, there is a number from 0 to 6 - this is a convention for indicating the increase in such a parameter as "ultimate strength". Correspondingly, the higher the number, the better the characteristics of the metal.

Technical characteristics

The strength properties of a particular product are determined not only by the strength of the base metal, but also by the presence of alloying components. For stainless steel, we are usually talking about such elements as chromium, nickel, silicon, vanadium, etc. The testing conditions and operating environment have a significant influence on the characteristics of the steel. The metal density coefficient is also used as an average and provides information about the mass-to-volume ratio.


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