Stainless steel metal mark the centenary
This year (officially — 13 August) stainless steel metal will celebrate its centenary. Naturally, attempts were made and doped alloys before. For example, Leon Gillet (French scientist) back in 1904 to determine the necessary elements for this set. But for a long time, the chemical compositions that provide good corrosion resistance iron, used exclusively for creating souvenirs and for laboratory experiments. A first stainless steel at a low price (which could be used on an industrial scale) was released by British metallurgists it in 1913. The metal structure was named «steybrayt», and since we can not imagine my life without this wonderful material.
But back to the story. A century ago, a scientist from Sheffield (England) — Harry Brearley (in the original — Harry Brearley) — invented a way to produce stainless steel «on an industrial scale.» While he was studying the stability of the inner surface of the cannon barrel into contact with fire. In the experiment, Brierley added about 10% chromium to normal carbon steel, thus obtained metal with a high melting point. A little later, at the alloy surface observed thin layer of chromium oxide (called it «passivation layer») material provides resistance to corrosion. Metal as «liked» the industrialists that in a few years after the date of the invention of the world smelted huge (by those standards) amount of stainless steel: Metal became popular any other materials, yielding steybraytu lion's share eating utensils, tableware, medical instruments, laboratory equipment. Harry Brearley did not pull in order to legitimize his own invention: in 1913 he received a patent on a martensitic steel, the predecessor of the modern stainless steel AISI 420. In 1915, a patent for the alloy passed Elwood Haynes (USA), under the leadership of which was created «American Corporation for stainless steel. «A few years later one of the countries to adjust release of new metal, and joined the Soviet Union.
During the Soviet industrialization program, the country — more than any other state — needed large volumes of stainless steel (it was a component of the high-tech industries of the time). The task of the development of domestic brands corrosion resistant metal was controlled by Stalin himself, and the industry has developed rapidly. It is noteworthy that some of the equipment of the time working in the steel mills today.